An alloy is a substance composed of an elemental metal and other elements, resulting in a material that exhibits metallic properties.
Annealing is a process used to soften and modify the material by subjecting it to controlled heating and cooling.
Anodizing is a surface treatment process applied to aluminum, which creates a controlled oxide layer on its surface.
An automatic press is a press with electrical controls that is mechanically fed the material to be pressed.
Bending refers to applying strain to metallic material in a way that the deformation becomes permanent.
A blank is a pre-cut metal piece intended for future press operations.
Blanking involves shaping the raw material into a general shape that can be used for several operations.
A burr is a raised and sharp edge of metal caused by cutting, punching, or drilling.
Burr height refers to the distance the raised edge or burr protrudes above the surface.
CNC LASER Cutting
CNC LASER Cutting is a technology that uses a computer-controlled LASER to cut materials precisely.
Coining is a process that uses a closed-die to confine a piece and produce detailed imprints.
A compound die is designed to perform multiple different processes on a part within one press stroke.
Coordinate Measuring Machine, (CMM)
A CMM is a machine used to measure in the third dimension, gathering coordinates on a part for inspection.
The corner radius refers to the outer radius of a part.
Counterboring is a process used to generate a cylindrical-shaped hole with a machining or coining operation.
Countersinking involves machining a part to create a conical hole, similar to counterboring.
Crimping is the process used to complete a seam or arc using corrugations.
Deburring refers to the removal of sharp protrusions from finished parts.
Dedicated tooling is a type of tooling specified for a particular part, also known as “hard tooling.”
Deep drawing is a process where a punch draws out sheet metal into a die cavity to form a specific shape.
A die is a tool with a cavity specifically designed for shaping a certain shape with a matching punch.
Die clearance refers to the approximate area located between the punch and die opening.
Die marks are marks created by tooling on the sheet metal, such as scratches, indentations, or scrub marks.
Die stamping refers to a piece that is formed, shaped, or cut by a die in a press.
A draw die is a special die used to “draw” sheet metal out by using a punch to push into the die cavity.
Drawing is the process of stretching out a flat piece of sheet metal to fit a specific 3-dimensional shape. It also refers to the documents an engineer uses to describe a part.
Ductility refers to a material’s ability to undergo bending or forming without fracturing.
Edging is a process used to reduce a part’s flange radius by retracting the punch slightly after the initial stroke without relieving the pressure. It can also refer to rolling the metal where the axis of the roll is parallel to the area considered the “thickness.”
Embossing is a process used to produce indented designs in a piece of metal, using a die with a cavity and a matching punch or matching die.
Extruding is a drawing-out process that uses a previously punched hole.
Finite Element Analysis
Finite Element Analysis is a method used to analyze deforming metal, including instantaneous velocity, strain rates, strain, stresses, and temperatures.
A flange is a rim or projection from a part formed for stiffness or to aid in assembly.
Forging is a process that uses extreme temperatures (hot or cold) and a punch to deform a piece of metal to the shape of a die cavity.
Forming refers to the process of shaping a 3-dimensional part from a flat sheet of metal.
Gage is a measurement given to the thickness of sheet metal or wire.
A gauge is a tool used for measuring or testing.
Grain direction refers to the general orientation of the finish on the surface of a part, often generated by an abrasive method.
A hydraulic press is a mechanism that uses fluid pressure-controlled ram.
An insert is a separate piece of steel used to assist in repair or to extend wearability.
Lead time refers to the total amount of time from when a customer places an order to the time when the product is available for immediate use.
A master die is the main tool that has the ability to house different tool systems.
A mechanical press is a forging mechanism that uses mechanical means to operate a ram, such as a flywheel, a crank, and a clutch.
Metal fabrication is the process of taking multiple sheet metal parts or blanks and welding them together.
Metal stamping is an economical manufacturing process ideal for customers with short lead times and repetitive low to medium volumes.
Metal thinning is a process in which the thickness of metal is reduced during a forming operation.
A multiple-slide press consists of individuals often connected into a main slide or main shaft that can be adjusted based on the timing and length of stroke required for the current operation.
Normalizing is a metal forming process in which the steel is heated above its critical temperature and then air cooled.
Notching is an operation in which a part or sheet of material is cut, sheared, or punched to produce holes and slots, similar to blanking.
Orange peel refers to a type of texture of steel that gives the outward appearance of an orange peel, often the result of after forming or steel mill processes.
Perforating is a process in which a sheet of metal or part is uniformly punched numerous times with identical holes, also referred to as multiple punching.
Piercing is an operation in which a part or sheet of material is cut, sheared, or punched to produce holes and slots, similar to blanking.
A press is a mechanism comprising a stationary bed and a slide used to shape and form metal.
A press bed is a stationary piece of a press to which the lower die assembly is normally mounted in a metal forming operation.
A press brake is a mechanism that uses a single action to deform a piece of sheet metal.
Press capacity refers to the total rated force a specific press has the ability to exert to a distance above the lowest point of a stroke.
Press forming is a metal forming operation that calls for the use of a mechanical or hydraulic press.
A progressive die consists of several stations, each performing an operation.
A prototype is the first production of a design used for testing and improving performance.
A punch is the part that reciprocally matches a die and forces the material into the die cavity.
A punch press is a mechanism that uses compression force to reshape materials.
The punch side refers to the side of the material that the punch enters through.
Quick Change Inserts
Quick change inserts are sections or parts that can be removed or exchanged without removing the whole tool and interrupting the process.
Reduction measures the decrease in diameter when going from blank to a cup, or the percentage decrease of a cross-sectional area in processes like forging, extrusion, rolling, or drawing.
Restriking is a process that uses striking to improve alignment, surface condition, hardness, and tolerances when parts are misaligned or forged incorrectly.
Reverse drawing involves drawing a part in the opposite direction to which it was originally drawn.
Scrap refers to unused pieces leftover from the operation that are recycled.
A screw press operates under high speeds with a ram actuated by a screw assembly connected to a drive mechanism.
Shearing is a procedure in which a cutting force is applied perpendicular to the surface of a material, causing it to break.
Sheet forming is a technique in which a piece of sheet metal is deformed into a 3-dimensional shape without disturbing the sheet thickness.
Shut height refers to the amount of space between a ram at its lowest point and the adjustment at its highest.
Stamp refers to all pieces produced by a press. It can also refer to the impression of a design or letters into a material’s surface.
Stress cracking occurs when a part reaches its maximum yield point, resulting in a fracture or stress crack, often due to residual stresses from cold forming, heat treating, or rapid cooling.
Stroke refers to the vertical motion that the ram makes, going from top dead center to bottom dead center or half the cycle.
Tapping is a process of cutting or forming used to generate internal threads in a piece.
Tensile strength is a ratio that relates the maximum load of a material to the original cross-sectional area.
Tolerance refers to the allowable variation from the original specifications of a product.
A transfer die is a smaller or sub die combined with others and attached to a transfer press, which presses pieces that are then transferred to the next die through a mechanical device.
A transfer press is a complex type of press with several different dies and a transfer mechanism that moves the piece from one die to the next.
A V die is a die with a cavity in a “V” shape to counter-match the V punch.
A V punch is a tool with a “V” shape used to form specific angles.
Vibratory finishing is a process used to remove burrs from a product, using an acceleration method and an abrasive material enclosed in a container.
Wear plates are plates mounted where the piece or product will receive the most wear and usage. They are often made of steel or bronze and are designed for easy replacement.
Yield strength is the specific stress point at which a material deviates from the original stress-to-strain ratio.