Glossary

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There are currently 83 names in this directory
Alloy
A substance comprised of an elemental metal and other elements that expresses metallic properties.
Annealing
A process that is used to soften and alter the material by heating and cooling the sample.
Anodizing
A process in which a oxide layer is controlled and applied to the surface of aluminum.
Automatic Press
A press with electrical controls that is mechanically fed the material to be pressed.
Bending
Applying strain to metallic material in a way the deformation remains permanent.
Blank
A metal piece pre-cut for future press operation.
Blanking
Shaping the raw material to a general shape to be used for several operations.
Burr
A raised and very sharp edge of metal due to cutting, punching and drilling.
Burr Height
The height the burr or raised edge is at above the surface.
CNC LASER Cutting
CNC technology, which stands for ‘computer numerical control’, uses a LASER programmed by a computer to cut materials
Coining
A process that uses a closed-die to confine the piece in order to produce detailed imprints.
Compound Die
A die that is designed to perform several different processes on a part within one stroke of the press machine.
Coordinate Measuring Machine, (CMM)
A machine that is used to measure in the third dimension, gathering coordinates on a part for inspection.
Corner Radius
The outer radius of a part.
Counterboring
A process used to generate a cylindrical shaped hole with a machining or coining operation.
Countersinking
A similar process to “counterboring”, machining a part to create a conical hole.
Crimping
The process used to complete a seam or an arc using a corrugations.
Deburr
Removing sharp protrusions from finished parts.
Dedicated Tooling
A type of tooling that is specified to a particular part, also called “hard tooling”.
Deep Drawing
Using a punch and flat blank of sheet metal, the punch draws out the sheet metal into a die cavity to form a particular shape.
Die
A type of tool that has a cavity specifically designed for a certain shape with a punch to match it.
Die Clearance
The approximate area that is located between the punch and die opening.
Die Marks
Marks created by tooling on the sheet metal such as; scratches, indentations or scrub marks.
Die Stamping
The term used to refer to a piece that is formed, shaped or cut by a die in a press.
Draw Die
A special die used to “draw” sheet metal out by using a punch to push into the die cavity.
Drawing
Using a flat piece of sheet metal to be stretched out to fit a specific, 3-dimensional shape. Also used to refer to the documents an Engineer uses to describe a part.
Ductility
Refers to a materials’ ability to submit to bending or forming.
Edging
A process used to reduce a parts’ flange radius which involves retracting the punch a little after the initial stroke without relieving the pressure. Also refers to rolling the metal where the axis of roll is parallel to the area that considered the “thickness”.
Embossing
A type of process that is used to produce indented designs in a piece of metal. This is done through the use of a die with a cavity and a matching punch or matching die.
Extruding
A drawing out process that uses a previously punched hole.
Finite Element Analysis
A method used to analyze a deforming metal in areas such as; instantaneous velocity, strain rates, strain, stresses and temperatures.
Flange
A rim or projection from a part formed for stiffness or to aide in assembly.
Forging
A process that uses extreme temperatures (hot or cold) and a punch to deform a piece of metal to the shape of a die cavity.
Forming
A term used to refer to the process of forming a 3-dimensional part from a flat sheet of metal.
Gage
A measurement given to the thickness of sheet metal or wire.
Gauge
A tool that is used for measuring or testing.
Grain Direction
The general orientation of the finish on the surface of a part, often generated by an abrasive method.
Hydraulic Press
A mechanism that uses a fluid pressure controlled ram.
Insert
A separate piece of steel that is used to assist in repair or to extend wearability.
Lead Time
The total amount of time from when a customer places an order to the time when the product is available for immediate use.
Master Die
The main tool that has the ability to house different tool systems.
Mechanical Press
A forging mechanism that uses mechanical means to operate a ram, such as; a flywheel, a crank and a clutch.
Metal Fabrication
The process of taking multiple sheet metal parts or blanks and welding them together.
Metal Stamping
An economical manufacturing process that is ideal for customers with short lead times, repetitive low to medium volumes.
Metal Thinning
A process in which the thickness of metal is reduced during a forming operation.
Multiple-slide Press
A press consisting of individuals often connected into a main slide or main shaft that can be adjusted based on the timing and length of stroke that the current operation calls for.
Normalizing
A metal forming process in which the steel is heated to above its’ critical temperature and then air cooled.
Notching
A process where the punch is used to remove material from an edge, corner of a strip or blank.
Orange Peel
A term that refers to type of texture of steel that gives the outward appearance of an orange peel, often the result of after forming or a steel mill.
Perforating
A process in which a sheet of metal or part is uniformly punched numerous times with identical holes. Also referred to as multiple punching.
Piercing
An operation in which a part or sheet of material is cut, sheared or punched to produce holes and slots. This is a very similar process to that of blanking.
Press
A type of mechanism comprised of a stationary bed and a slide which is used to shape and form metal.
Press Bed
A stationary piece of a press that the lower die assembly is normally mounted to in a metal forming operation.
Press Brake
A mechanism that uses a single action to deform a piece of sheet metal.
Press Capacity
The total rated force a specific press has the ability to exert to a distance above the lowest point of a stroke.
Press Forming
A metal forming operation that calls for the use of a mechanical or hydraulic press.
Progressive Die
A die consisting of several stations, each performing an operation.
Prototype
The first production of a design, used for testing and improving performance.
Punch
The part that reciprocally matches a die and forces the material into the die cavity.
Punch Press
The mechanism that uses compression force in order to reshape materials.
Punch Side
The side of the material that the punch enters through.
Quick Change Inserts
A section or part that can be removed or exchanged without removing the whole tool and interrupting the process.
Reduction
The measure that the diameter decreased when going from blank to a cup. Also refers to the percentage decrease of a cross-sectional area, when discussing forging, extrusion, rolling or drawing. In general the term refers to a percentage decrease from an original shape to the re-shape.
Restriking
A process that uses striking to improve alignment, surface condition, hardness and tolerances. Only used when parts are misaligned or forged incorrectly.
Reverse Drawing
An operation in which a part is drawn in the opposite direction to which it was originally drawn.
Scrap
Unused pieces that are leftover from the operation which go straight to recycling.
Screw Press
A press that operates under high speeds with a ram that is actuated by a screw assembly connected to a drive mechanism.
Shearing
A procedure in which a cutting force is applied perpendicular to the surface of a material, forcing the material to its yield point and resulting in a break.
Sheet Forming
A technique in which a piece of sheet metal is deformed into a 3-dimensional shape without disturbing the sheet thickness.
Shut Height
The amount of space between a ram at its lowest point and the adjustment at its highest.
Stamp
The term that refers to all pieces produced by a press. Also refers to the impression of a design or letters into a material’s surface.
Stress Cracking
When a part reaches its maximum yield point, the result is a fracture or stress crack. This is often due to residual stresses from cold forming, heat treating or rapid cooling.
Stroke
The vertical motion that the ram makes in going from top dead center to bottom dead center or half the cycle.
Tapping
A process of cutting or forming that is used to generate internal threads in a piece.
Tensile Strength
A ratio that relates the maximum load of a material to the original cross-sectional area.
Tolerance
Variation from the original specifications of that product that is allowable.
Transfer Die
A smaller or sub die that is combined with others and attached to a transfer press that presses pieces that are then transferred to the next die through the use of a mechanical device.
Transfer Press
A complex type of press that has several different dies and a transfer mechanism that moves the piece from one die to the next.
V Die
A die with a die cavity in a “V”-shape to counter-match the V punch.
V Punch
A “V”-shaped tool that is used to form specific angles.
Vibratory Finishing
A process that is used to remove burrs off a product, using an acceleration method and an abrasive material enclosed in a container.
Wear Plates
Plates that are mounted where the piece or product will receive the most wear and usage. Often made of steel or bronze and provides for easy replacement.
Yield Strength
The specific stress point at which a material deters from the original stress to strain ratio.

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